Biocompatible polymeric inks


Design, synthesis and formulation of functional resins (inks) for 3D printing application:

Resin composition

  • Crosslinkable polymers, crosslinkers, reactive diluents, photoinitiators:
  • Control of viscosity (-> printing process)
  • Control of light sensitivity (-> selective curing)
  • Increased cure speed
  • Controlling O2 sensitivity -> better controlling inert inkjet printing

Crosslinked material

  • Control of elongation strength and tensile strenght
  • E-modulus: soft material (1 MPa) -> stiff material (2500 MPa)
  • Swellability: hydrophobic ( 0 %) -> hydrophilic (200+ %)
  • Surface functionality: double bonds, carboxy-functions, amino-functions
  • Shape memory polymers


  • Photocrosslinking elastomers for rapid prototyping, WO2012041519A2
  • Device and method for the production of 3d structures in layers, and use thereof, WO2012041522A1


  • Engelhardt, S.; Hoch, E.; Borchers, K.; Meyer, W.; Krüger, H.; Tovar, G.; Gillner, A.
    Fabrication of 2D Protein Microstructures and 3D Polymer–protein Hybrid Microstructures by Two-Photon Polymerization.
    Biofabrication 3 (2011): 25003.
  • Engelhardt, S.; Hu, Y.; Seiler, N.; Riester, D.; Meyer, W.; Krüger, H.; Wehner, M.; Bremer-Koebberling, E.; Gillner, A. 3D-Microfabrication of Polymer-Protein Hybrid Structures with a Q-Switched Microlaser.
    6, no. 1 (2011): 54–58. doi:10.2961/jlmn.2011.01.0012.
  • Grothe, D.C.; Meyer, W.; Janietz, S.
    Acrylate Functionalized Tetraalkylammonium Salts with Ionic Liquid Properties.
    Molecules 17, no. 6 (May 31, 2012): 6593–6604. doi:10.3390/molecules17066593.
  • Hoch, E.; Schuh, C.; Hirth, T.; Tovar, G.; Borchers, K.
    Stiff gelatin hydrogels can be photo-chemically synthesized from low viscous gelatin solutions using molecularly functionalized gelatin with a high degree of methacrylation.
    Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 11 (2012) 2607-2617.
  • Huber, B.; Engelhardt, S.; Meyer, W.; Krüger, H.; Wenz, A.; Schönhaar, V.; Tovar, G.; Kluger, P.; Borchers, K.
    Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization.
    Journal of Functional Biomaterials 7, no. 2 (April 20, 2016): 11. doi:10.3390/jfb7020011.
  • Meyer, W.; Engelhardt, S.; Novosel, E.; Elling, B.; Wegener, M.; Krüger, H.
    Soft Polymers for Building up Small and Smallest Blood Supplying Systems by Stereolithography. Journal of Functional Biomaterials 3, no. 2 (March 29, 2012): 257–68. doi:10.3390/jfb3020257.
  • Novosel, E.; Meyer, W.; Klechowitz, N.; Krüger, H.; Wegener, M.; Walles, H.; Tovar, G.; Hirth, T.; Kluger, P.
    Evaluation of Cell‐Material Interactions on Newly Designed, Printable Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications.
    Advanced Engineering Materials. Accessed November 28, 2011. doi:10.1002/adem.201180018.


  • »BioRap – Herstellung bio-inspirierter Versorgungssysteme für Transplantate mittels Rapid Prototyping über Inkjet-Druck und Multiphotonenpolymerisation« (funded by Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, 2008 - 2011)
  • »ArtiVasc 3D – Artificial vascularised scaffolds for 3D-tissue regeneration« (funded by the EU, 2011 - 2015)
  • Fraunhofer-Leitprojekt »Theranostische Implantate: Biokompatible Implantatoberfläche durch 3D Druck von Biomolekülen und Stützstrukturen – Entwicklung gewebekompatibler Oberflächenausrüstung« (funded by Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, 2014 - 2018)